How Early Marriage Impacts Girls’ Education and Limits Empowerment

How Early Marriage Impacts Girls’ Education and Limits Empowerment

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Early Marriage


Early marriage, predominantly seen in places like India, detrimentally impacts girls’ education and their path to empowerment. Typically identified as marriages occurring before the age of 18, this practice introduces grave repercussions for girls’ physical,  emotional and social health. In this blog, we will explore the impact of early marriage on girls’ education and empowerment, offer an overview of the situation in India, and discuss the legal and educational measures in place to counter this deep-rooted challenge.

Indian Context: Startling Statistics

The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) reports that India is home to a staggering one-third of the globe’s child brides. Around 27% of Indian girls marry before turning 18, a trend more pronounced in rural locales, where traditional beliefs and economic constraints reinforce this custom. These figures underscore the pressing need for intervention.

India’s Legal Safeguards

India has made legislative efforts to curb early marriages and safeguard girls’ rights. The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act (2006) explicitly forbids marriages for girls under 18 and boys under 21. Additionally, the Right to Education Act (2009) mandates free, compulsory education for all children aged 6 to 14, irrespective of their gender. Despite these laws forming a sturdy legal base, their effectiveness in remote regions remains a concern due to implementation challenges.

Read More: Leveraging technology and innovation to support girls’ education and prevent dropout.

Impacts of Early Marriage on Girls’ Education and Empowerment

1. Education Disruption :

Early marriage frequently results in the premature end to a girl’s schooling. As these girls are married off at a young age, they’re typically compelled to leave their education behind. This truncates their learning, stymies their personal development, and diminishes their prospects for economic self-reliance.

2. Reproductive Health Risks :

Marrying early places girls at a higher risk of early pregnancies and associated health challenges. These young girls face increased threats of complications in childbirth, maternal mortality, and higher infant mortality rates.

3. Limited Decision-Making Power :

Girls who marry early often lack decision-making power within the household. Their influence over personal choices, educational pursuits, and broader life goals becomes limited, perpetuating patterns of disempowerment and gender disparity.

4. Economic Dependency :

Early marriage further reinforces gender stereotypes, confining girls to traditional roles as homemakers and caregivers. This diminishes their avenues for achieving economic autonomy and ensuring financial stability.

Creative Approaches for Schools to Address Child Marriage

  1. In-depth Sex Education – Schools should offer culturally sensitive, age-appropriate sex education to elucidate the repercussions of premature marriage and pregnancies. This initiative would empower girls with pivotal knowledge, enabling them to make informed life choices.
  2. Imparting Essential Life Skills – Infusing life skills training into academic curricula fosters the development of girls’ self-assurance, analytical thinking, and decision-making capabilities. These attributes are instrumental in enabling girls to resist societal conventions and pursue their individual dreams.
  3. Engaging the Community – A cooperative approach, involving schools, local communities, religious figures, and parents, can be instrumental in emphasizing the significance of girls’ education and the detrimental effects of underage marriage. Such community collaboration is paramount to transform entrenched societal beliefs.
  4. Offering Scholarships & Incentives – Furnishing girls with scholarships and other incentives to further their education acts as a compelling inducement for families to postpone marital decisions, prioritizing their daughter’s academic progression.
  5. Harnessing Art and Media as Advocacy – The expressive mediums of art, drama, and music are potent advocacy tools against child marriages. Schools could host artistic contests, stage plays, and musical events spotlighting the value of girls’ education and the repercussions of premature matrimony.
  6. Promotion of Mentorship and Role Models – Launching mentorship initiatives and presenting successful female trailblazers can inspire young girls to chase their aspirations. Inviting distinguished women from diverse sectors to narrate their personal narratives provides vivid testament to the potential accomplishments when girls are accorded educational opportunities. Through mentorship, these young minds obtain counsel, motivation, and support, particularly when confronting societal pressures like premature marriage.

Read More:  5 Best Practices to boost girls’ education and reduce dropout rates


Child marriage remains a significant impediment to the education and empowerment of girls within India. Such unions deprive these girls of their youth, truncate their educational endeavors, and curb their potential for both personal and fiscal development. The persistent occurrence of child marriages underscores the pressing necessity for a concerted response from governments, communities, educational institutions, and individuals. With innovative tactics, schools can be at the forefront of championing female education, endowing them with crucial knowledge and aptitudes, and severing the cycle of child marriage. This paves the way for a promising and egalitarian future for every Indian girl.


1. What are the impacts of early marriage?

Early marriage can limit personal growth, disrupt education, and increase health risks for both partners. It can also perpetuate cycles of poverty and gender inequality.

2. Why is early marriage harmful?

Early marriage is harmful because it deprives individuals, especially girls, of their childhood, education, and opportunities for personal development. It can lead to health complications and perpetuate social and economic disadvantages.

3. How does early marriage affect female education?

Early marriage often forces girls to drop out of school, depriving them of education and future opportunities. This perpetuates a cycle of poverty and limits their ability to achieve economic independence and fulfil their potential.

4. Why is education important before marriage?

Education before marriage is crucial as it empowers individuals with knowledge, skills, and opportunities for personal and professional growth. It enables them to make informed decisions, pursue their aspirations, and contribute positively to society.

5. What are the factors affecting early marriage?

Factors influencing early marriage include poverty, lack of education, cultural and social norms, gender inequality, and limited access to reproductive health services. These factors can intersect and create complex challenges that perpetuate the practice of early marriage in certain communities.


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