5 Strategies to Ensure Equal Success for Girls and Boys in Science and Mathematics in India

5 Strategies to Ensure Equal Success for Girls and Boys in Science and Mathematics in India

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Science and Mathematics Education, often called STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics), forms the backbone of a nation’s progress and development. India, with its vast population and diverse talent, has the potential to become a global leader in STEM fields. However, there exists a significant gender gap in STEM education, particularly in science and mathematics, where girls are underrepresented compared to boys. In this blog, we will explore the current state of STEM education in India, identify the existing challenges and disparities, and present five strategies to ensure equal success for girls and boys in science and mathematics.

Present Condition of STEM Education in India

While India has made significant strides in promoting STEM education, numerous challenges still hinder its progress. According to a UNESCO report, only about 14% of Indian scientists and engineers are women, highlighting the gender disparity in STEM fields. Additionally, there is a considerable urban-rural divide in access to quality STEM education, with better resources concentrated in urban areas, leaving rural students disadvantaged.

Furthermore, many schools’ curricula and teaching methods often focus on rote learning, harming students’ creativity and problem-solving abilities. This approach does not encourage critical thinking, essential for excelling in science and mathematics. Moreover, the lack of well-equipped laboratories and modern teaching aids hampers practical learning, hindering students from gaining hands-on experience.

Importance of Science and Mathematics Education

Science and mathematics education shapes individuals’ intellectual and analytical capabilities. Here are some key reasons why STEM education is crucial for India’s progress:

1.Fostering Innovation: STEM education nurtures a culture of innovation, encouraging students to think creatively and solve real-world problems. This directly impacts a nation’s ability to develop cutting-edge technologies and industries.

2.Economic Development: Countries with a strong foundation in science and mathematics education tend to experience more significant economic growth. STEM fields drive innovation, productivity, and competitiveness, making them crucial contributors to economic development.

3.Global Competitiveness: India must produce a skilled workforce in science and technology to be competitive on the global stage. This will attract foreign investment, boost exports, and elevate India’s standing in the international community.

4.Addressing Societal Challenges: Science and mathematics are crucial in solving societal issues, such as climate change, healthcare, and resource management. A well-educated STEM workforce can develop sustainable solutions for these challenges.

Also Read: 7 barriers and enablers for accessing quality education for girls in rural areas

What Are We Lacking in STEM Education?


1. Inclusive Curriculum: The current STEM curriculum in India needs to be more inclusive, often failing to integrate examples and narratives that resonate with girls and underrepresented communities. This can lead to disinterest and lower participation in these fields.

2. Female Role Models: The lack of visible female role models in STEM perpetuates stereotypes and limits girls’ aspirations. Encouraging and highlighting successful women in science and mathematics can inspire young girls to pursue careers in these domains.

3. Encouragement and Support: Girls often face societal pressure and biases that discourage them from pursuing STEM careers. There is a need to create a supportive environment at home and in educational institutions to encourage girls to take an interest in science and mathematics.

4. Gender Stereotypes: Gender biases and stereotypes within society and educational institutions can influence career choices. Challenging these stereotypes and promoting an environment that recognizes and respects diverse interests and talents is essential.

5. Teacher Training: Effective teaching methods are critical for engaging students in STEM subjects. Providing adequate training and professional development opportunities for teachers can significantly impact students’ learning experiences.

Strategies to Ensure Equal Success for Girls and Boys in Science and Mathematics

1. Overcoming Stereotypes and Gender Bias

One of the primary reasons for the underrepresentation of girls in science and mathematics is deeply ingrained gender stereotypes and bias. From an early age, societal norms often dictate that girls are not as capable in STEM subjects as boys, leading to self-doubt and a lack of confidence among young girls. To counter this issue, educational institutions and parents must work to break down these stereotypes.

According to the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2021, in rural India, only 23.2% of girls aged 14-18 could correctly solve a division problem compared to 32.6% of boys. The gap is narrower in urban areas, but there’s still a difference in performance between boys and girls.


  • Encourage schools to promote gender-neutral teaching methods and materials depicting girls and boys excelling in science and mathematics.
  • Organize workshops and seminars to sensitize teachers, parents, and students about the impact of stereotypes and the importance of equal opportunities.
  • Highlight female role models in science and mathematics to inspire young girls and challenge preconceived notions.

Also Read: 5 Ways K–12 Educators Can Empower Girls to Consider STEM

2. Improved Access to Quality Education

Equal access to quality education is essential to level the playing field for girls and boys in science and mathematics. Unfortunately, girls in many parts of India still face barriers such as a lack of schools, inadequate facilities, and early dropouts due to societal pressures. Providing better infrastructure and a safe learning environment can significantly impact girls’ participation in STEM education.

According to the National Sample Survey (NSS) 75th round, the female literacy rate in rural India was 57.7% compared to 73.9% for males. This disparity hampers girls’ opportunities to pursue higher education and careers in STEM fields.


  • Establish and maintain schools in remote areas with a focus on creating a conducive environment for girls’ education.
  • Introduce scholarships and incentives to encourage girls to pursue science and mathematics.
  • Implement special mentorship programs to support girls’ educational journey and guide them towards STEM careers.

3. Encouraging Co-Ed Participation and Collaboration

Co-educational environments are pivotal in fostering collaboration and teamwork among boys and girls. Promoting interaction and cooperation between genders can dismantle the perception of superiority or inferiority in specific subjects, leading to more inclusive learning environments. According to a study conducted by the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), students in co-educational schools demonstrated better academic performance and social skills than single-gender school students.


  • Promote collaborative projects that require teamwork between boys and girls in science and mathematics classes.
  • Encourage extracurricular activities that mix genders to help develop a sense of camaraderie and understanding.
  • Organize joint events and competitions celebrating achievements in science and mathematics irrespective of gender.

4. Mentorship and Career Guidance

Effective mentorship and career guidance can significantly impact students’ decisions about pursuing science and mathematics-related careers. Girls often need more access to role models and guidance in these fields, leading to limited exposure and understanding of available opportunities. Mentorship and career counseling can help them make informed choices.

A study reveals that girls who receive mentorship are more likely to enroll in STEM programs and pursue STEM careers.


  • Collaborate with professionals from the science and mathematics fields to serve as mentors and role models for aspiring girls.
  • Conduct career counseling sessions that introduce girls to various STEM careers and highlight successful women in these domains.
  • Establish partnerships with STEM industries to facilitate internships and hands-on experiences for both boys and girls.

5. Inclusive Curriculum and Teaching Pedagogy

The curriculum and teaching methods used in schools should be designed to be inclusive and cater to the diverse needs of all students, regardless of gender. Girls may have different learning styles or preferences, and educators should be equipped to adapt their teaching pedagogy accordingly.

According to UNICEF, Science, and Technology, a female-friendly curriculum can positively impact girls’ attitudes and performance in STEM subjects.


  • Review and update the curriculum to incorporate real-world examples that resonate with both girls and boys.
  • Implement interactive and hands-on learning techniques to engage students and make learning enjoyable.
  • Provide teacher training workshops that address gender biases in the classroom and promote inclusive teaching practices.


Equal success for girls and boys in science and mathematics is essential for India’s progress and development. By addressing the gender gap in STEM education and implementing the above mentioned strategies, we can create a more inclusive and prosperous future for the nation. Investing in science and mathematics education fosters innovation and economic growth and equips future generations to tackle the complex challenges of the 21st century. Let us work together to build a nation where every child, regardless of gender, has an equal opportunity to excel in STEM fields and contribute to India’s scientific advancement and global standing.


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